The trial, launched in collaboration with Johnson & Johnson Medical Devices, provides a smartphone app to support patients in preparation for surgery and rehabilitation.
The CSIRO said in a statement that total knee replacement procedures in Australia had increased by 77% between 2003 and 2014.
It said studies had shown that rehabilitation exercises led to faster recovery, but many patients neglected this.
A wearable activity tracker is provided to encourage basic exercise, track sleep and self-monitor progress.
This links to a website at which clinicians can set up individual physiotherapy programmes and monitor patient progress.
CSIRO Health and Biosecurity director Dr Rob Grenfell said the technology had the potential to make a big difference to patient recovery.
“The aim of our digital health platforms are to support patients on their surgery journey and recovery," he said.
"As more Australians face surgical treatment for osteoarthritis, more work needs to be done to understand how we can deliver accessible and cost-effective services for patients and clinicians.
"This study will allow us to understand the ways in which the app changes the patient experience.
"The collaboration with Johnson & Johnson Medical Devices is another great example of science working with industry to improve people’s lives."